Monthly Archives: October 2016

Charles Leaver – Changes For Endpoints With The Advent Of Illumination

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Written By Dr Al Hartmann And Presented By Ziften CEO Charles Leaver

The dissolving of the standard boundary is taking place quick. So what happens to the endpoint?

Investment in boundary security, as specified by firewalls, managed gateways and invasion detection/prevention systems (IDS/IPS), is changing. Investments are being questioned, with returns unable to conquer the costs and intricacy to develop, preserve, and validate these old defenses.

More than that, the paradigm has changed – workers are no longer specifically working in the workplace. Many individuals are logging hours from home or while traveling – neither area is under the umbrella of a firewall program. Instead of keeping the cyber criminals out, firewall software frequently have the opposite impact – they avoid the authorized people from being efficient. The paradox? They develop a safe house for hackers to breach and hide for many weeks, then traverse to vital systems.

So Exactly what Has Altered A lot?

The endpoint has actually become the last line of defense. With the aforementioned failure in perimeter defense and a “mobile everywhere” labor force, we should now enforce trust at the endpoint. Easier stated than done, nevertheless.

In the endpoint area, identity & access management (IAM) systems are not the perfect answer. Even innovative companies like Okta, OneLogin, and cloud proxy vendors such as Blue Coat and Zscaler can not conquer one simple truth: trust goes beyond basic identification, authentication, and permission.

File encryption is a second attempt at securing whole libraries and selected assets. In the most recent (2016) Ponemon study on data breaches, file encryption just saved 10% of the expense per breached record (from $158 to $142). This isn’t the panacea that some make it seem.

The Whole Picture is altering.

Organizations must be prepared to accept brand-new paradigms and attack vectors. While companies must supply access to trusted groups and individuals, they have to address this in a better way.

Critical company systems are now accessed from anywhere, any time, not simply from desks in business office complexes. And professionals (contingent labor force) are quickly consisting of over 50% of the total business workforce.

On endpoint devices, the binary is mainly the issue. Most likely benign occurrences, such as an executable crash, might indicate something basic – like Windows 10 Desktop Manager (DWM) restarting. Or it could be a much deeper issue, such as a malicious file or early indications of an attack.

Trusted access doesn’t resolve this vulnerability. According to the Ponemon Institute, between 70% and 90% of all attacks are brought on by human error, social engineering, or other human factors. This requires more than simple IAM – it needs behavioral analysis.

Rather than making good much better, boundary and identity access companies made bad quicker.

When and Where Does the Good News Begin?

Taking a step back, Google (Alphabet Corp) announced a perimeter-less network design in late 2014, and has made substantial development. Other businesses – from corporations to governments – have actually done this (quietly and less severe), but BeyondCorp has done this and shown its solution to the world. The style viewpoint, endpoint plus (public) cloud displacing cloistered enterprise network, is the crucial principle.

This changes the entire discussion on an endpoint – be it a laptop, PC, workstation, or server – as subservient to the corporate/enterprise/private/ organization network. The endpoint truly is the last line of defense, and must be secured – yet also report its activity.

Unlike the traditional perimeter security model, BeyondCorp does not gate access to tools and services based upon a user’s physical location or the originating network; instead, access policies are based on info about a device, its state, and its associated user. BeyondCorp thinks about both internal networks and external networks to be entirely untrusted, and gates access to apps by dynamically asserting and enforcing levels, or “tiers,” of access.

By itself, this seems harmless. However the truth is that this is an extreme brand-new design which is imperfect. The access requirements have actually moved from network addresses to device trust levels, and the network is heavily segmented by VLAN’s, rather than a central model with capacity for breaches, hacks, and hazards at the human level (the “soft chewy center”).

The bright side? Breaching the perimeter is very challenging for would-be assailants, while making network pivoting next to impossible once past the reverse proxy (a typical system utilized by assailants today – proving that firewall programs do a better job of keeping the cyber criminals in rather than letting the good guys go out). The inverse design even more applies to Google cloud servers, probably tightly handled, inside the boundary, versus client endpoints, who are all out in the wild.

Google has actually done some great improvements on tested security methods, especially to 802.1 X and Radius, bundled it as the BeyondCorp architecture, including strong identity and access management (IAM).

Why is this essential? Exactly what are the gaps?

Ziften believes in this approach due to the fact that it highlights device trust over network trust. Nevertheless, Google does not particularly show a device security agent or emphasize any kind of client-side monitoring (apart from extremely rigorous configuration control). While there might be reporting and forensics, this is something which every company needs to be knowledgeable about, since it’s a question of when – not if – bad things will occur.

Because executing the initial phases of the Device Inventory Service, we’ve consumed billions of deltas from over 15 data sources, at a normal rate of about three million each day, amounting to over 80 terabytes. Keeping historical data is important in enabling us to understand the end-to-end lifecycle of a given device, track and evaluate fleet-wide patterns, and carry out security audits and forensic examinations.

This is an expensive and data-heavy procedure with two shortcomings. On ultra-high-speed networks (used by organizations such as Google, universities and research study companies), adequate bandwidth enables this type of communication to take place without flooding the pipes. The first concern is that in more pedestrian corporate and federal government scenarios, this would cause great user disturbance.

Second, computing devices need to have the horse power to continuously gather and transfer data. While many staff members would be delighted to have present developer-class workstations at their disposal, the cost of the devices and procedure of refreshing them regularly makes this excessive.

A Lack of Lateral Visibility

Few products really create ‘enhanced’ netflow, augmenting standard network visibility with abundant, contextual data.

Ziften’s patented ZFlow ™ offers network flow information on data created from the endpoint, otherwise achieved utilizing brute force (human labor) or pricey network devices.

ZFlow serves as a “connective tissue” of sorts, which extends and finishes the end-to-end network visibility cycle, including context to on-network, off-network and cloud servers/endpoints, enabling security teams to make quicker and more educated and precise decisions. In essence, investing in Ziften services result in a labor savings, plus a boost in speed-to-discovery and time-to-remediation due to innovation serving as an alternative to people resources.

For companies moving/migrating to the cloud (as 56% are planning to do by 2021 in accordance with IDG Enterprise’s 2015 Cloud Study), Ziften offers unrivaled visibility into cloud servers to better monitor and protect the complete infrastructure.

In Google’s environment, just corporate-owned devices (COPE) are enabled, while crowding out bring your own device (BYOD). This works for a business like Google that can hand out new devices to all staff – phone, tablet, laptop computer, etc. Part of the reason for that is the vesting of identity in the device itself, plus user authentication as usual. The device should satisfy Google requirements, having either a TPM or a software application equivalent of a TPM, to hold the X. 509 cert utilized to confirm device identity and to help with device-specific traffic encryption. There needs to be numerous agents on each endpoint to validate the device validation predicates called out in the access policy, which is where Ziften would have to partner with the systems management agent provider, because it is likely that agent cooperation is necessary to the procedure.


In summary, Google has actually developed a world-class service, but its applicability and usefulness is limited to companies like Alphabet.

Ziften offers the very same level of functional visibility and security protection to the masses, using a light-weight agent, metadata/network flow tracking (from the endpoint), and a best-in-class console. For companies with specialized requirements or incumbent tools, Ziften supplies both an open REST API and an extension framework (to augment consumption of data and setting off response actions).

This yields the advantages of the BeyondCorp design to the masses, while securing network bandwidth and endpoint (machine) computing resources. As companies will be slow to move totally away from the enterprise network, Ziften partners with firewall and SIEM suppliers.

Lastly, the security landscape is progressively shifting to managed detection & response (MDR). Managed security service providers (MSSP’s) provide traditional tracking and management of firewall software, gateways and border invasion detection, however this is insufficient. They do not have the skills and the technology.

Ziften’s solution has been tested, integrated, authorized and executed by a variety of the emerging MDR’s, showing the standardization (capability) and flexibility of the Ziften platform to play a crucial role in remediation and occurrence response.

Charles Leaver – The Same Message From The 2016 Verizon DBIR Report

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Written By Dr Al Hartmann And Presented By Charles Leaver, Ziften CEO


The Data Breach Investigations Report 2016 from Verizon Enterprise has been released reviewing 64,199 security occurrences leading to 2,260 security breaches. Verizon defines an event as compromising the stability, privacy, or accessibility on an info asset, while a breach is a verified disclosure of data to an unauthorized party. Since avoiding breaches is far less unpleasant than sustaining them Verizon provides numerous sections of advised controls to be utilized by security-conscious businesses. If you don’t care to check out the complete 80-page report, Ziften provides this Verizon DBIR analysis with a spotlight on Verizon’s EDR-enabled recommended controls:

Vulnerabilities Advised Controls

A solid EDR tool carries out vulnerability scanning and reporting of exposed vulnerabilities, consisting of vulnerability exposure timelines showing vulnerability management efficiency. The direct exposure timelines are very important given that Verizon emphasizes a methodical method that emphasizes consistency and coverage, versus haphazard practical patching.

Phishing Recommended Controls

Although Verizon advises user training to prevent phishing vulnerability, still their data shows almost a third of phishes being opened, with users clicking on the link or attachment more than one time in 10. Not good odds if you have at least ten users! Provided the inevitable click compromise, Verizon suggests placing effort into detection of abnormal networking activity indicative of pivoting, C2 traffic, or data exfiltration. A sound EDR solution will not just track endpoint networking activity, however likewise filter it against network threat feeds recognizing harmful network targets. Ziften exceeds this with our patent-pending ZFlow technology to enhance network flow data with endpoint context and attribution, so that SOC personnel have crucial choice context to quickly fix network notifications.

Web App Attacks Suggested Controls

Verizon advises multi-factor authentication and monitoring of login activity to avoid compromise of web application servers. A strong EDR solution will monitor login activity and will apply anomaly inspecting to spot uncommon login patterns a sign of jeopardized credentials.

Point-of-Sale Invasions Advised Controls

Verizon advises (and this has actually likewise been highly recommended by FireEye/Mandiant) strong network division of POS devices. Again, a strong EDR solution ought to be tracking network activity (to determine anomalous network contacts). ZFlow in particular is of great worth in providing important choice context for suspect network activity. EDR systems will also deal with Verizon’s suggestion for remote login tracking to POS devices. In addition to this Verizon suggests multi-factor authentication, however a strong EDR ability will augment that with additional login pattern abnormality checking (since even MFA can be defeated with MITM attacks).

Insider and Privilege Misuse Advised Controls

Verizon recommends “monitor the heck out of [staff member] authorized day-to-day activity.” Continuous endpoint monitoring by a strong EDR product naturally provides this capability. In Ziften’s case our product tracks user presence periods of time and user focus activities while present (such as foreground application usage). Anomaly checking can identify unusual variances in activity pattern whether a temporal anomaly (i.e. something has actually modified this user’s typical activity pattern) or whether a spatial anomaly (i.e. this user behavior pattern varies considerably from peer habit patterns).

Verizon also suggests tracking usage of USB storage devices, which solid EDR products offer, because they can function as a “sneaker exfiltration” route.

Miscellaneous Errors Advised Controls

Verizon recommendations in this area concentrate on maintaining a record of past errors to serve as a warning of errors to avoid in the future. Solid EDR products do not forget; they preserve an archival record of endpoint and user activity going back to their first release. These records are searchable at any time, perhaps after some future event has actually discovered an invasion and response groups need to return and “find patient zero” to unravel the incident and determine where errors may have been made.

Physical Theft and Loss Suggested Controls

Verizon suggests (and numerous regulators demand) full disk file encryption, particularly for mobile phones. A strong EDR system will verify that endpoint configurations are compliant with business file encryption policy, and will notify on infractions. Verizon reports that data assets are physically lost one-hundred times more frequently than they are physically stolen, however the effect is essentially the very same to the affected enterprise.

Crimeware Recommended Controls

Once again, Verizon emphasizes vulnerability management and constant extensive patching. As kept in mind above, proper EDR tools identify and track vulnerability direct exposures. In Ziften’s case, this keys off the National Vulnerability Database (NVD), filtering it versus procedure image records from our endpoint monitoring. This reflects a precisely updated vulnerability assessment at any moment.

Verizon also advises catching malware analysis data in your very own enterprise environment. EDR tools do track arrival and execution of brand-new binaries, and Ziften’s product can acquire samples of any binary present on enterprise endpoints and send them for in-depth static and dynamic analysis by our malware research partners.

Cyber-Espionage Recommended Controls

Here Verizon particularly calls out usage of endpoint threat detection and response (ETDR) tools, referring to the security tool sector that Gartner now terms endpoint detection and response (EDR). Verizon likewise recommends a number of endpoint setup solidifying actions that can be compliance-verified by EDR tools.

Verizon likewise advises strong network securities. We have actually currently discussed how Ziften ZFlow can greatly boost standard network flow monitoring with endpoint context and attribution, supplying a combination of network and endpoint security that is truly end-to-end.

Finally, Verizon advises monitoring and logging, which is the first thing third party incident responders demand when they show up on-scene to assist in a breach crisis. This is the prime purpose of EDR tools, because the endpoint is the most frequent entry vector in a major data breach.

Denial-of-Service Attacks Suggested Controls

Verizon suggests handling port access to prevent enterprise assets from being used to take part in a DoS attack. EDR products can track port use by applications and utilize anomaly checks to identify uncommon application port use that might suggest compromise.

Business services moving to cloud providers also require protection from DoS attacks, which the cloud service provider may provide. However, taking a look at network traffic tracking in the cloud – where the business might lack cloud network visibility – alternatives like Ziften ZFlow supply a means for gathering enhanced network flow data directly from cloud virtual servers. Do not let the cloud be your network blind spot, otherwise enemies will exploit this to fly under your radar.